I've been reading university textbooks on human genetics "for fun" since the 1980s, and for even longer I've been visiting my state flagship university's vast BioMedical Library to look up topics on human medicine and health care policy. Molecular population genomics: a short history. In 1951, he obtained a bachelors degree in biology from Harvard University. Genetic heterogeneity of two alcohol dehydrogenase loci in, Extent of genetic variation at a highly polymorphic esterase locus in, Electrophoretic heterogeneity of alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in many species of. Plants are much better than animals for studying things in nature. Richard Lewontin of Harvard University ‘‘found that nearly 85 per cent of humanity’s genetic diversity occurs among individuals within a single population.’’ ‘‘In other words, two individuals are different because they are individuals, not because they belong to different races.’’ In 2001, the Human https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.115.185975. "Witherspoon, D. J., Wooding, S., Rogers, A. R., Marchani, E. E., Watkins, W. S., Batzer, M. A., & Jorde, L. B. RICHARD LEVINS AND RICHARD LEWONTIN . Occasionally, convincing evidence of selectively caused shifts in allele frequencies in laboratory populations was obtained, as well as for selective differences among allozyme genotypes in natural populations (reviewed by Gillespie 1991, Eanes 1999, and Watt and Dean 2000). 2002, Edwards 2003), and it is unreal when geneticists who do not believe it is real brandish their genetic data and statistical analysis...the number of races of Europeans, say, may range from one (on the latest US Census, in 2010) to three (Ripley 1899) to five (Boyd 1963) to twelve (Coon 1939). A special thank you to Wikipedians BlackHades and ArtifexMayhem, both of whom suggested sources on my user talk page as I was looking up sources for editing this and related articles. There was evidence for abundant genetic variation in quantitative traits, as well for “concealed variability” revealed by inbreeding experiments, but the numbers of genes involved, the frequencies of allelic variants at the underlying loci, and the sizes of their effects on the traits in question, were all unknown. This is the ultimate confirmation of the work using the sequential electrophoresis of a single human protein (Ramshaw et al. Biology, philosophy of - Biology, philosophy of - Topics in the philosophy of biology: Without doubt, the chief event in the history of evolutionary theory was the publication in 1859 of On the Origin of Species, by Charles Darwin (1809–82). In particular, combined analyses of genomic patterns of between-species divergence and within-population variation allow the contributions of selective and neutral processes to evolutionary change to be evaluated with increasing precision (Boyko et al.