", https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_1865-0610-312, "Clovis I | Biography, Significance, & Facts", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clovis_I&oldid=996297906, Converts to Christianity from pagan religions, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2018, Articles needing additional references from September 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles with German-language sources (de), Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. , In the same year, Clovis convinced Prince Chlodoric to murder his father, earning him his nickname. :297 French monarchs, beginning in the Fourteenth Century at the latest, attempted to officially canonise Clovis a number of times.  But just to be absolutely certain about retaining the loyalties of the Catholics under Visigoths, Clovis ordered his troops to omit raiding and plunder, for this was not a foreign invasion, but a liberation.. as well as nearby Cannon Air Force Base. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains … It is named for the first important archaeological site found, in 1929, near Clovis, N.M. Clovis sites were long believed to have dated to about 9500 to 9000 bc, although early 21st-century analyses suggest the Only Chlotar, who outlived his brothers, ruled a united kingdom, but he in turn divided it among his sons. Thirty-three bishops assisted and passed 31 decrees on the duties and obligations of individuals, the right of sanctuary, and ecclesiastical discipline. :73, It has been suggested that the reason that the French state promoted the veneration of Clovis in the south was to establish a border cult that would cause Occitans to venerate the northern-led French state by venerating its founder. The historical Clovis remains a shadowy figure: a warrior who solidified a kingdom, corresponded with bishops, and converted to Catholic Christianity. Clovis had been a king with no fixed capital and no central administration beyond his entourage. They foraged for plants and hunted animals for food. The disunity continued under the Carolingians until, after a brief unity under Charlemagne, the Franks splintered into distinct spheres of cultural influence that coalesced around Eastern and Western centers of royal power.  He made Paris his capital and established an abbey dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul on the south bank of the Seine. Historians believe that Childeric and Clovis were both commanders of the Roman military in the Province of Belgica Secunda and were subordinate to the magister militum. 511 November 27 or 513: Clovis dies in Paris, Daly, William M. (1994) "Clovis: How Barbaric, How Pagan?". Clovis definition, of or relating to a Paleo-Indian cultural tradition of North America, especially the American Southwest, dated 10,000–9000 b.c. c. 494: Clovis' and Clotilde's first child, Ingomer is born and dies. Gregory places Clovis’s baptism in 496 and characterizes his subsequent battles as Christian victories, particularly the engagement with the Visigoths in 507 that has long been identified with Vouillé but now is believed to have occurred at Voulon near Poitiers, France. In 1933, archaeologists began scurrying to some of the hottest and most remote parts of New Mexico to stare at a patch of dirt. His dynasty, the Merovingians, survived for more than 200 years. Clovis’s kingdom began in the region encompassing modern Belgium and northeastern France, expanded south and west, and became the most powerful in Gaul. Born c. 466. Clovis arrowheads are usually crafted out of stone or chert. Clotilde had wanted her son to be baptized, but Clovis refused, so she had the child baptized without Clovis's knowledge. Daly, William M., "Clovis: How Barbaric, How Pagan?". In the interpretatio romana, Saint Gregory of Tours gave the Germanic gods that Clovis abandoned the names of roughly equivalent Roman gods, such as Jupiter and Mercury. Together the triumvirate marched against Syagrius and met the Gallo-Roman commander at Soissons. Clovis' failed to complete his objective via military means, therefore, he was constrained to statecraft, which proved fruitful for the Armonici shared Clovis' disdain for the Arian Visigoths. :497 St. Clovis enjoyed a persistent campaign from French royal authorities that few non-French national or dynastic saints did. This was the First Council of Orléans. These powerful figures had no qualms about working with Germanic kings, as a letter to Clovis from Bishop Remigius of Reims, written early in the king’s reign, makes clear. :130 Aymeric not only referred to Clovis as a saint but also prayed for St. Clovis' intercession. , In 509, Clovis visited his old ally, Ragnachar in Cambrai. Clovis’s life as a religious man illustrates the challenges then faced by the Catholic bishops and illuminates their concerns with evangelism. While the theology of the Arians was declared a heresy at the First Council of Nicea in 325, the missionary work of Bishop Ulfilas converted the pagan Goths to Arian Christianity in the 4th century. Clovis 1. During the battle Chalaric betrayed his comrades by refusing to take part in the fighting. When Clovis died, his kingdom was partitioned among his four sons, Theuderic, Chlodomer, Childebert, and Clotaire. Look it up now! Archaeologists' most precise determinations at present suggest this radiocarbon age is equal to roughly 13,200 to 12,9… Within decades of his death, he had become a hero and was held up as a model king.  He also integrated many of Syagrius' units into his own army. Clovis definition: → clovis point | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples According to Avitus, it is also likely that Clovis was baptized rather late in life, possibly at Christmas in 508, only three years before his death. He rose from a relatively minor ruler in northern Gaul to become the most powerful leader in what is now the modern nation of France. His baptism is considered one of the formative dates in French history. With only fossils and carved spear points to turn to, the Clovis … Shortly after his baptism, their son died, which further strengthened Clovis's resistance to conversion. Armonici assisted him in defeating the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse in the Battle of Vouillé in 507, eliminating Visigothic power in Gaul. :119–126, St. Clovis had the role of a more militarised royal saint than the pious Louis IX of France. :497–502 Despite Clovis' presence in Paris, his cultus was largely based in the south of France. In both cases, an unexpected victory in battle led a king to trust the power of the Christian God and to submit to baptism. He uses florid rhetoric to describe the arguments with which Clotilda attempted to persuade her husband to abandon paganism.  The adoption by Clovis of Catholicism (as opposed to the Arianism of most other Germanic tribes) led to widespread conversion among the Frankish peoples; to religious unification across what is now modern-day France, Belgium and Germany; three centuries later, to Charlemagne's alliance with the Bishop of Rome; and in the middle of the 10th century under Otto I the Great, to the consequent birth of the early Holy Roman Empire. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Clovis was the son of the pagan Frankish king Childeric and the Thuringian queen Basina. (archaeology)A particular site that contains evidence of an e… Clovis was the son of Childeric I, a Merovingian king of the Salian Franks, and Basina, a Thuringian princess. It understood the godhead in hierarchical terms. “Pitiful,” Meltzer joked in First Peoples in a New World, his history of America’s first colonization.  He is considered to have been the founder of the Merovingian dynasty, which ruled the Frankish kingdom for the next two centuries. Detracting, perhaps, from this legacy, is his aforementioned division of the state. Fresco at the Panthéon (Paris) by Joseph Blanc, circa 1881. The Pactus Legis Salicae, a written code combining customary law, Roman written law, Christian ideals, and royal edicts, likely originated during Clovis’s reign and had a long history of emendation and influence. He is considered to have been the founder of the Merovingian dynasty, which ruled the Frankish kingdom for the next two centuries. Clovis was born a pagan but later became interested in converting to Arian Christianity, whose followers believed that Jesus was a distinct and separate being from God the Father, both subordinate to and created by Him. , In 507, following Vouillé, Clovis heard about Chararic's plan to escape from his monastic prison and had him murdered.  Now Christian, Clovis confined his prisoners, Chararic and his son to a monastery.  The Old Norse form Hlǫðvér was most likely borrowed from a West Germanic language. A Brief History of Clovis. The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Paleoamerican culture, named for distinct stone tools found in close association with Pleistocene fauna at Blackwater Locality No. A millennium and a half later he remains significant. Since Clovis's name does not appear in the consular lists, it is likely he was granted a suffect consulship. Childeric I, Clovis's father, was reputed to be a relative of Chlodio, and was known as the king of the Franks that fought as an army within northern Gaul. Clovis married the Roman Catholic Burgundian princess Clotilda and had five children with her. Orthodox Catholicism understood the godhead as comprising three “coequal,” “coeternal” members. He proceeded to drown his sister-in-law and force his niece, Chrona, into a convent; another niece, Clotilde, fled to the court of her other uncle. Clovis statue at the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, The Sons of Clovis, by Georges Moreau de Tours (1877), In later centuries, Clovis was venerated as a saint in France. Frankish king. The best modern descriptions of the life and times of Clovis are The Cambridge Medieval History, vol. Clovis. Clovis was the son of the pagan Frankish king Childeric and the Thuringian queen Basina. Really, they were more interested in what was in the dirt. :297 As a saint, Clovis was important as he represented the spiritual birth of the nation and provided a chivalrous and ascetic political model for French political leaders to follow. The Clovis culture was named after flint spearheads found in the 1930s at a site in Clovis, New Mexico.  King Alaric had previously tried to establish a cordial relationship with Clovis by serving him the head of exiled Syagrius on a silver plate in 486 or 487. This partition created the new political units of the Kingdoms of Rheims, Orléans, Paris and Soissons, and inaugurated a tradition that would lead to disunity lasting until the end of the Merovingian dynasty in 751. His band of warriors probably numbered no more than half a thousand. The Clovis people had a rapid emergence and even faster disappearance. Born c. 465; died 511. For Catholics, he was the first major Germanic Catholic king, and Pope John Paul II celebrated a mass in Reims in 1996 in honour of the 15th centenary of his baptism. Omissions? Clovis I, (born c. 466—died November 27, 511, Paris, France), king of the Franks and ruler of much of Gaul from 481 to 511, a key period during the transformation of the Roman Empire into Europe. During a battle with a neighboring tribe of Teutons in 496, Clovis’ warriors were being driven from the field. He succeeded his father in 481 as the ruler of the Salian Franks and other Frankish groups around Tournai (now in Belgium). His conversion to Catholicism was that of one man and not of his kingdom, but it can be seen as pivotal in Frankish history. In the American west, Clovis sites range in age from 13,400-12,800 calendar years ago BP , and in the east, from 12,800-12,500 cal BP. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. At the Battle of Soissons (486) he established his military dominance of the rump state of the fragmenting Western Roman Empire which was then under the command of Syagrius. Clovis came from the branch of the Franks known as the Salians, who lived along the northern coast of France. Clovis, like his father, dealt politically and diplomatically with the Catholic bishops of Gaul. c. 508: Clovis baptized by the Bishop of Reims (late estimate). The Catholics won by ecclesiastical and imperial decree in the 4th century, making Arianism a heresy, but Arianism remained an important force in parts of Europe as late as the 6th century. A member of the Merovingian family, Clovis was the founder of the kingdom of the Franks over which he ruled from 481 or 482 until 511. Over the centuries much has been made of Clovis’s conversion to Catholicism.  The Franks of Tournai came to dominate their neighbours, initially aided by the association with Aegidius. Updates? Definition of Clovis Points. In 486 he began his efforts to expand the realm by allying himself with his relative, Ragnachar, regulus of Cambrai and another Frankish regulus, Chalaric. In the same year, the neighboring King of the Burgundians was slain by his brother, Gundobad; bringing civil strife to that kingdom. The Roman Law lists various crimes as well as the fines associated with them.. The Pactus Legis Salicae (Law of the Salian Franks), a written code combining customary law, Roman written law, Christian ideals, and royal edicts, likely originated during Clovis’s reign and had a long history of emendation and influence.  The latter turned into Ludwig in Modern German, although the king Clovis himself is generally named Chlodwig. Clovis I was king of the Franks and ruler of much of Gaul from 481 to 511, a key period during the transformation of the Roman Empire into Europe. Clovis points are thin, fluted projectile points created using bifacial percussion flaking (that is, each face is flaked on both edges alternatively with a percussor). The most important source for the life of Clovis and the character of Merovingian Gaul is the History of the Franks by Gregory of Tours, written between 575 and 585 and available in several English translations.  However, Clovis was no longer able to resist the temptation to move against the Visigoths for many Catholics under Visigoth yoke were unhappy and implored Clovis to make a move. 2.  Clovis did bequeath to his heirs the support of both people and Church such that, when the magnates were ready to do away with the royal house, the sanction of the Pope was sought first. modern Dutch Lodewijk and Lowik). The details of this event have been passed down by Gregory of Tours, who recorded them many years later in the 6th century. Senior Program Officer in the Enterprise Office of the National Endowment for the Humanities in Washington D.C. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Upon Clovis’s death, he divided his kingdom among his four surviving sons. Clovis (Latin: Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlodowig; c. 466 – 27 November 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs. 1 near Clovis, New Mexico in the 1920s and 1930s. Peg Bos is the president of the Clovis Museum on 4th and Pollasky avenues in Old Town Clovis. and characterized by a usually bifacial, fluted stone projectile point (Clovis point ) used in big-game hunting. Clovis laid the foundation of the Merovingian dynasty the ruled Medieval France for hundreds of years after his death. Clovis personally illustrates the juxtaposition of these three belief systems. This was done not along national or even largely geographical lines, but primarily to assure equal income amongst his sons after his death. During the fighting, the Franks suffered heavy losses and Clovis (+three thousand Frankish companions) might have converted to Christianity. What does Clovis mean? History Of Old Town Clovis California Experience the Charm of Old Town Clovis The town of Clovis was pioneered by the vision of Marcus Pollasky who along with a group of prominent Fresnans raised over $100,000 in 1891 to build a single freight stop along the San Joaquin Valley Railroad, opening a gateway from the San Joaquin Valley to the east. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. del Regno di Napoli. , In Middle Dutch, a Franconian language closely related to Frankish, the name was rendered as Lodewijch (cf. Clovis was eager to subdue the political threat to his realm and crossed to the Burgundian territory. Clovis culture The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture, named after distinct stone tools that were found at sites near Clovis, New Mexico, in the 1920s and 1930s. Information and translations of clovis culture in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. , The death of Flavius Aetius in 454 led to the decline of imperial power in the Gaul; leaving the Visigoths and the Burgundians compete for predominance in the area. Conclusion: A missing piece in American History. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. His life illustrates a crucial series of ideological and cultural transformations that took place throughout the Western Roman Empire as it gave way to Germanic kingdoms. (466?–511).� The founder and king of the Frankish kingdom that dominated Western Europe in the early Middle Ages was Clovis. Clovis was born a pagan but converted to Roman Catholicism. Clovis I was a Germanic tribal leader who is considered the founder of the medieval kingdom of France. Vol. Numerous small Frankish petty kingdoms existed during the 5th century. 3. Clovis (reigned 481/482–511), the son of Childeric, unified Gaul with the exception of areas in the southeast. :140:73 Boniface Symoneta, Jacques Almain and Paulus Aemilius Veronensis gave hagiographic accounts of Clovis' life and at the time it was common to include Clovis' life in collections of the lives of the saints. Gregory elevated the Franks to equivalency with the ancient Hebrews, the chosen people, and Clovis to the stature of their great king David. The earliest Clovis points found so far are from the Gault site in Texas, 13,400 cal BP: meaning Clovis-style hunting lasted a period of time no longer than 900 years. The Benedictine Abbey of Saint-Denis (where Clovis was buried) had a shrine to St. Clovis to the east of the main altar. Clovis arrowheads are approximately 1-6 inches long and 3-4 centimeters wide. Before accepting Catholicism, he was interested in the Christian heresy Arianism, sympathetic with it, and perhaps even leaning toward adopting it. By deciding to be interred at Paris, Clovis gave the city symbolic weight. , Around 493 AD, he secured an alliance with the Ostrogoths through the marriage of his sister Audofleda to their king, Theodoric the Great. Clovis I is traditionally said to have died on 27 November 511; however, the Liber Pontificalis suggests that he was still alive in 513, so the exact date of his death is not known. On Christmas Day, 496 Clovis I, king of the Franks, converted to Catholicism at the instigation of his wife, Clotilde, a Burgundian princess who was a Catholic in spite of the Arianism that surrounded her at court. Based on the attested forms, the original name is reconstructed in the Frankish language as *Hlodowig, which means 'glorious in battle' or 'glorious warrior'. One fun fact about Peg Bos, she was the first female mayor of Clovis from 1984-86. Clovis's wife Clotilde, a Burgundian princess, was a Catholic despite the Arianism that surrounded her at court. In the middle of an era when scientists hotly debated the origins of Native Americans, archaeologist Edgar Howard had discovered prehistoric stone tools mixed with fossilized mammoth bones.Clovis Points are a Antifa: Definition and History: The anti-fascist protest movement known as antifa gained new prominence in the United States after the white supremacist Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, VA, in August 2017. The Roman kingdom was probably under Clovis' control by 491, because in the same year Clovis successfully moved against a small number of Thuringians in the eastern Gaul, near the Burgundian border. 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